Whether in the West Bank or in the Gaza Strip, strong restrictions stemming from the occupation of the territory by Israel, directly influence the implementation of projects, particularly the building of infrastructure. Israeli control of all borders also has an impact on exchanges with the exterior, both in terms of travel and imports and exports of materials to and from Palestine.
As part of the Oslo agreements (1994), Areas A, B and C were defined. Their difference lies in the way control is shared between the PA and Israel. Area A (~ 20% of the geographical area and 55% of the population of the West Bank) is administered and controlled by the Palestinian Authority. It is composed mainly of densely urbanized areas. Area B (~ 20% of the geographical area and 40% of the population of the West Bank) is administered by the PA and controlled by Israel.Area C (~ 60% of the geographical area and 5% of the population of the West Bank) is administered and controlled by Israel; the PA has no control there. Urban development is therefore extremely restricted for the Palestinians. The Gaza Strip is completely within area A.See Map
Authorizations and building permits: All infrastructure projects need to be validated by the PWA. According to their nature or location, some also require authorizations from the Joint Water Committee (JWC) and/or the Israeli Civil Administration (ICA).Without obtaining prior Israeli authorizations, an infrastructure project may face various difficulties. During the construction phase, blockage at Israeli customs can cause significant delays for the import of materials and equipment. Moreover, after the construction, destruction of the infrastructure is a possibility. Some exceptions have been encountered, but these should not be considered to be fixed rules. The information below should therefore be systematically verified on a case-by-case basis starting from the preparatory phase of projects in order to anticipate the necessary administrative procedures. To do this, it is advisable to get in touch with different contact organizations, particularly the local Palestinian partner, the PWA and the local office of the AFD in Jerusalem.
Specific features of projects in the Gaza Strip: Even though the Gaza Strip is entirely controlled by the Palestinians, there are certain restrictions. Firstly, a ‘buffer zone’ has been imposed by Israel along the barrier on the Palestinian side. The width of this zone does not seem to be clearly defined (or known), but varies depending on the source, from 300m to 500m. No activity can, in theory, be undertaken in this zone. Following the conflict that marked the end of 2012, an exception was made for agricultural activities: farmers are authorized to cultivate at a distance of up to 100 m from the barrier. The very high population density in the Gaza Strip (around 4,000 inhabitants/km2) is also an important restriction in terms of land availability. In the case of construction of works requiring a large land area, this problem should be taken into account well in advance. Back To Top
Travelling to Palestine: The simplest way to travel to the West Bank is to transit via Ben Gurion international airport in Tel-Aviv. Jerusalem and Ramallah are located around 60km from this airport and are easily accessible by road. It is preferable, nonetheless, to pre-book a taxi, particularly for a trip directly from the airport to Ramallah (most Israeli taxis are not authorized or do not wish to travel to the West Bank). Travel to the West Bank can also be envisaged from Amman (Jordan) if arrival is from a country without a direct air link to Israel (Lebanon, Syria, etc.) In this case, entry must be made via the Allenby Bridge crossing point, which is controlled by Israel.
The level of security checks at the airport in Tel-Aviv and at the Allenby Bridge is random, both upon arrival and departure. You should bear in mind that a passport containing stamps of Arab countries can make crossing the borders significantly more difficult.
To reach the Gaza Strip from Israel, the Erez checkpoint in the north of the Gaza Strip is the only crossing point open for the transit of people. Access is nevertheless subject to very strict control by the Israeli authorities and is conditioned by a prior coordination. This must be requested from the Consulate General of France (CGF) in Jerusalem, which coordinates with the Israeli authorities. The request should be made to the CGF at least one month before the entry date and you should bear in mind that it is the Israeli authorities who have the final say. Recently, the only foreigners authorized to enter the Gaza Strip from Israel were journalists and diplomatic and humanitarian personnel. Obtaining authorization for access was very difficult in every other case.
If it is impossible to cross at the Erez checkpoint, travel to the Gaza Strip can only be envisaged from Egypt, via the Rafah border post. This eventuality requires the obtaining of an Egyptian visa and a security coordination authorization from the Egyptian Embassy in France.
The French Embassy in Egypt must also be informed, because crossing the Sinai (to travel from Cairo to the Rafah border post) is sometimes subject to security restrictions. The Embassy can also be asked to supply a verbal notice to support the application to the Egyptian authorities. On the Palestinian side, the local partners can generally help to facilitate entry from the Rafah border post. Finally, the Palestine Mission in France can be approached to facilitate all the procedures described above.
Travel in the West Bank: It is possible to travel everywhere in the West Bank, except to Israeli settlements whose access is guarded and prohibited for unauthorized persons.However, all travel in the West Bank requires passing through checkpoints controlled by the Israeli army. Instructions to be followed vary regularly and are different according to the checkpoints. It is therefore essential to be driven by a Palestinian driver for all travel in the West Bank. This is even more justified as navigation is difficult, particularly in the cities. The SCAC (aid and cultural action unit) of the Consulate General of France in Jerusalem, the contact for decentralized aid with the PWA and the RCDP, can supply the necessary contact information to organize travel arrangements.
Irrelevant of the access point to Gaza, the Consulate General of France in Jerusalem absolutely must be informed before travel to this area. The CGF, thanks to its consular arm on the ground, can supply the necessary information on the advisability of travel according to the prevailing security conditions, as well as the necessary precautions to be taken, and the access requirements according to the crossing point (opening times, administrative procedures, etc.)
Travel in the Gaza Strip: The Israeli army is totally absent from the Gaza Strip but there are several Hamas checkpoints on the main roads. Generally, travel is not restricted and it is possible in theory to go anywhere in this territory, except for the buffer zone (see above). It is of course essential to be accompanied by a local driver during all trips. Back To Top
Import of materials to the West Bank: Goods imported from abroad generally transit through the Israeli seaport of Ashdod or Ben Gurion airport. As they are for use in Palestine, customs clearance by the Israeli authorities systematically requires prior authorization from the JWC (see above).
When financing of value added tax (VAT) is not envisaged, clearance of these goods also requires obtaining in advance a tax exemption document (‘donation number’) issued by Israel, in liaison with the Palestine Ministry of the Economy and the Ministry of Finance. It is worth remembering that Israel collects all the import taxes on goods going to Palestine and transfers these funds to the PA. Obtaining this document may be a prerequisite for a foreign supplier to send their goods.
Finally, certain checks are then made by the Israeli authorities but the procedure and the time delay are not clearly known. The total duration of customs clearance, outside obtaining the tax exemption document, may take from a few days to several months.
Generally the procedures described above are managed by the Palestinian partners (PWA, MoF, the Palestinian partner), and it is not realistic to give estimates of timeframes, even approximate. You should however bear in mind that processes are virtually frozen during Jewish festivals, as is the case for several weeks in September/October, a period during which many festivals take place.
Import of materials to the Gaza Strip: At the end of 2012, there was only one remaining official passing point at Kerem Shalom (Karm Abu Salem) for import of materials and equipment from Israel. Despite the existence of many tunnels under the frontier with Egypt to supply the Gaza Strip with various products (foodstuffs, building materials, manufactured goods, fuel), it is strongly advised not to use this type of method. As such, finding local suppliers is highly preferable.
In addition to the procedures already mentioned for import of manufactured goods from abroad, bringing materials into the Gaza Strip necessitates a supplementary level of coordination with the Israeli authorities via the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). This coordination is generally managed by the Palestinian partners, who must submit an exhaustive list of the products to be imported along with their characteristics. Some products, whose use is deemed suspect by the Israelis (or ‘dual-purpose’), may be refused. This is notably the case with steel pipes of a diameter between 50 and 200 mm, some chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizer, and some telecommunications equipment and building machinery. Back To Top
Partnerships generally give rise to the organization of missions by French delegations to Palestine (or vice versa). In addition to the access and travel restrictions mentioned above, other information exists, which is useful for the proper preparation of these field missions.
Availability of Palestinian partners: During missions, Palestinian partners generally give freely of their time, but a certain number of restrictions should be taken into account when asking for appointments:
The Palestinian working week begins on Sunday morning and ends on Thursday afternoon.
In public institutions, working days are non-stop from 8/9am to 3pm. A break in the middle of the day is sometimes taken to have a snack, but you should be aware that the lunch break is not indispensable. You should therefore be prepared to eat only after the day’s work, as Palestinians do.
In private companies, working hours are more flexible and employees generally have only one rest day per week, either on Friday or Sunday.
You should also be aware of certain important events in the Palestinian and Israeli calendar, in particular:
Palestinian and Muslim public holidays;
The month of Ramadan, during which work slows somewhat and workdays are shortened to 9/10am to 2pm. Work continues nevertheless almost normally during this period;
The Aïd el-Seghir (or Aïd el-Fitr) and the Aïd el-Kebir (or Aïd el-Adha) are celebrated respectively at the end of the month of Ramadan and 70 days later. These two feasts are the most important Palestinian holiday periods where all institutions close for 4 to 7 days;
Certain commemoration days that are not public holidays, but which affect the normal activities and particularly travel (commemoration of Nakba on 15 May, the death of Yasser Arafat on 11 November, etc.);
Israeli public holidays, which sometimes lead to travel restrictions, particularly closure of checkpoints or of roads to motor vehicles.
Locations and travel times: depending on the place of intervention in the West Bank, it might be practical to be based in Ramallah (centre), Bethlehem (south) or Nablus (north). All these cities have good quality hotel infrastructure. Ramallah can be considered the most practical base as it is a central, easily accessible city which also contains a good number of important contacts (ministries, PWA, RCDP, etc.). Moreover, the West Bank is a small territory (130 km from north to south and 55 km from east to west) and the distances are therefore relatively small. From Ramallah, estimated journey times are as follows:
The Gaza Strip is an even smaller territory than the West Bank (40 km long and 6 to 12 km wide). Trips inside it are therefore short, and the main hindrance to organizing missions on the ground is gaining access to the territory. It is therefore more appropriate and effective to plan missions of at least 2 to 3 days in length. On account of the administrative procedures and access times, a 1-day trip would correspond to only 4 hours actual work in the field. Gazans are also appreciative of time spent with them, as they are more aware than anyone else of the access restrictions to their territory. It is worth noting that there are several good quality hotels in Gaza City.
Communication: Palestinians have a good standard of English overall, but rarely speak French. In order to facilitate communication during missions, it is therefore often useful to hire a Franco-Palestinian interpreter. Interpreters can be proposed by the SCAC, the RCDP or the correspondent for decentralized aid at the PWA. It is important to ensure that the chosen interpreter has a command of at least certain technical terms to avoid any misunderstandings. Back To Top
In the context of strong implication by the international community, the decentralized aid stakeholders operating in the water sector can bring a special contribution which is complementary to that of other funders.
Putting similiar-level stakeholders in touch with each other: the decentralized cooperation partnerships allow two stakeholders at the same institutional level to be put into in direct contact. Even though the size of Palestinian cities and other administrative entities is generally more modest than in France, the current divisions make it possible to envisage partnerships linking:
*A Palestinian city to a French city;
*A Palestinian governorate to a French department or region;
*A Palestinian joint water and sanitation service council with a similar French entity.
The decentralized cooperation thus brings together stakeholders facing similar problems and therefore facilitates dialogue and understanding. Knowledge of the challenges surrounding the management of a territory (political, social, economic, etc.) or of a type of service is a real asset for French decentralized aid partners. This is a characteristic unique to them, as other sector stakeholders (funders, NGOs) do not have the same level of dialogue with the Palestinian communities.
Making actions sustainable: The projects and programs conducted by funders and NGOs in Palestine can last from a few months to several years, but are always of limited duration.These projects often include measures aimed at supporting and strengthening capacities, but they are rarely extended beyond the implementation period of the project. Conversely, the relationships built up through decentralized aid allow for long-term support. This continuity encourages partners to get to know each other and builds trust in relationships.
I In a context of conflict with Israel and political instability, these partnerships are also perceived to be concrete manifestations of solidarity of the French with their Palestinian counterparts. Facing difficult living conditions (travel restrictions, daily difficulties in carrying out even the simplest tasks, etc.), the Palestinian partners consider contacts with the outside world to be of great importance. Any sign of interest or friendship coming from outside takes on a symbolic importance. Due to this, special attention should be given to maintaining relationships even during periods of tension.
The special know-how of French stakeholders: Palestine is very urbanized, and even the great majority of villages have water, electricity networks and paved roads. Basic infrastructure does exist, so it is important not to think of Palestine as an underdeveloped country. There are nonetheless many needs, which can be costly in terms of infrastructure.
Faced with such colossal needs, it is obvious that the funding available through decentralized aid partnerships cannot provide adequate responses. The activities of French local authorities must as a consequence concentrate on solving problems which can benefit from their special position and utilize French expertise in the best possible way. While it seems obvious that French actions should respond to the needs expressed by the Palestinian partners, they should prioritize the interventions which are rarely or not at all included in the programs of other funders. In keeping with the competencies available within the French communities, the following avenues can be highlighted:
*Strengthening administrative, commercial and financial management of services;
*Support for the technical operation of networks;
*Management of general studies (diagnostics, development plans, etc.).
Adaptability of the intervention methods: The added value of these partnerships is not only the nature of projects undertaken, but also the way in which they are implemented. While the projects funded by the major funders allow large sums of money to be brought into play, the time required to make them available is often very long and rarely allows for urgent requests, especially small ones, to be met. By allowing funds to be made available quickly, decentralized aid partnerships can meet needs which are considered a priority. Finally, the level of dialogue between French and Palestinian partners allows the content of activities to be regularly adapted to circumstances. Back To Top
Setting up a partnership in the water sector in Palestine goes through the same stages as any other type of decentralized aid activity: identifying the local partner; choosing the actions principally according to the needs expressed; defining implementation and funding. These stages should be examined in light of the specific Palestinian context.
Consulting and contacting the main stakeholders are the first steps for setting up a partnership. The main partners of the decentralized cooperation are the SCAC of France in Jerusalem, the AFD office in Jerusalem, the decentralized cooperation correspondent in PWA,and the RDCP (in France and in Ramallah).
Identification of needs: The needs identification phase in direct liaison with the Palestinian partner is fundamental and should not be underestimated.Even though the living conditions of the Palestinians have been made very difficult because of the conflict with Israel, you would be wrong to think that Palestine is in a true humanitarian emergency situation (except for certain Bedouin villages and post-crisis situations in the Gaza Strip). In order to guarantee the suitability of the chosen activities and the sustainability of their impact, it is important to give this phase the necessary time and resources.
In the first instance, the French local authority should be able to estimate its own capacities in terms of financial and human resources, and to identify the competencies available in order to initiate the first discussions with its Palestinian counterpart on a firm basis. In this way, one can avoid committing to a project which is too costly, too complex, or where insufficient resources are available to fulfill the commitment. Even if the content of the interventions needs to be reduced, the most important thing is that the partnership should ultimately lead to concrete, tangible action.
Identifying the activities should then be based on the needs expressed by the Palestinian partner, on the clear condition that they are in keeping with the competencies and resources available to the French partner. Whatever the type of action envisaged, it is nevertheless important to check their suitability by consulting the PWA and the AFD in particular. Even if the latter do not have exhaustive knowledge of ongoing projects in the sector, their opinion is essential in order to:
*Ensure that the chosen actions are in keeping with the national policy and the strategies set out by the PWA;
*Search for complementarities with other ongoing projects by identifying the current actions and associated stakeholders in the field and the geographical area being targeted;
*Read the studies available on the field and geographical area being targeted in order to capitalise on already existing experience and avoid any duplication;
*Knowthe restrictions related to the project envisaged, in terms of activities, field of intervention and geographical area.
The Palestinian partner should clearly be involved in these steps in order to be sure that the actions eventually chosen, closely match their expectations. However, the close relations and trust built up with them should not hide the need to have the project examined by third parties.
Intervention methods: Whereas the first contacts, and the formalization of the partnership, are of necessity made directly between French and Palestinian partners, the implementation of the activities can be envisaged in different ways:
*Direct interventions and implementation by the French local authority: the bringing together of French and Palestinian engineers and technicians is one of the great blessings of direct implementation by the French local authority. It must be noted that the Palestinians are highly educated, and direct relationships lead to a true mutual enrichment. The involvement of French technical personnel in missions to Palestine allows them, additionally, to get to know the work of their Palestinian counterparts, and better understand the problems faced by them and make appropriate recommendations. While this method of intervention should be preferred, its main drawback lies in the difficulty French local authorities may have internally in making available the necessary resources;
*Having recourse to a project carrier such as an association or NGO which can carry out the project and facilitate the implementation (logistical or financial management) and/or bring technical expertise. As far as possible, the project carrier should be chosen depending on its knowledge of the Palestinian context, of problems relating to water and sanitation and its experience in the chosen intervention field (training, studies, works, and technical assistance).
Finally, when two French local authorities have initiated a partnership with the same Palestinian partner, it may be appropriate for them to group together. This will allow the extension of the scope of the intended actions and the pooling of resources made available for the partnership by each French stakeholder. It goes without saying that this is possible only with more than two authorities or communities, whether French, European or international.
Management of financial flows: Expenditure relating to activities implemented can be of different types: mission expenses of French delegations in Palestine (or Palestinian ones in France) and/or the payment of a service provider, purchase of materials or equipment, etc.
Management methods of these expenses vary and there are several models:
*Opening of a special bank account in Palestine, managed by the Palestinian partner, for local expenditure. In this case, the account can be credited in several installments and subject to financial reports. This system means that expenditure in France (mission expenses, procurement of equipment, etc.) must be managed separately by the French partner;
*Delegation of all funds to the RCDP or to an NGO in charge of managing all expenditure linked to one or several operations. An NGO may be approached solely to carry out this task, or it may also be a project carrier;
*Direct payment to the partner or reimbursement of expenses against proof of expenditure.
In all events and whatever the type of actions implemented, it is fundamental to precisely define how the funds and payments are to be made before making any expenditure. In agreement with the Palestinian partner and the various parties involved, the payment methods for studies, services or works should therefore be detailed (timing of release of payments, necessity to retain all proof of payment, etc.). Similarly, if local content is planned (making available equipment, labor, storage, etc.), its nature and the proof required should be detailed. Back To Top
In Palestine, projects in general, can be categorized into four main types: works, studies, training and technical assistance. During the action definition phase, all the players involved should be identified. They may be grouped together in a management committee. In order to encourage exchanges it is preferable to appoint a single ‘reference’ contact.
Public works: Public works are often the first thing requested by Palestinian partners. While this is not, in the context of Palestine, the field in which decentralized cooperation brings the most value, the fact remains that these works can have an important positive impact on the population. To ensure the appropriateness of the interventions to be implemented, the proposed works should take into account several important factors:
*The specifics of land ownership: the restrictions associated with areas A, B and C (in the West Bank) are liable to make it necessary to obtain special authorizations from the relevant Palestinian and/or Israeli authorities. To this end, the precise location of all the works to be funded should be defined during the first phases of the project based on maps from different sources(PWA, MoLG, MoPAD, OCHA, etc.), and whatever the type of works planned or the level of guarantee given by the partners regarding the areas targeted;
*Import authorizations for materials and equipment;
*The prevailing political context in Palestine: this increases the importance of budgeting sufficiently for contingencies to deal with unexpected changes in the situation (about 10-15%).
Locally, existing technical capacity to manage infrastructure should be evaluated. When the infrastructures to be financed need some technical ability to run and maintain them, it is necessary to include a training component or a strengthening of capacities to ensure sustainable operation.
The sustainability of investments depends also on the local availability of spare parts. The use of materials and equipment sourced locally should therefore be given preference.
Works should also be looked upon as an Accompanying measures designed to improve the collection of payment of invoices for water and sanitation, for example, can be envisaged. In some cases these improvement measures can even be considered to be necessary conditions to be reached before the works are carried out. It should be mentioned that the use of prepayment meters is encouraged by the AP and is therefore an avenue to be explored.
Most works can be carried out by local companies who generally have the human and technical resources necessary to carry them out correctly. For example, this is notably the case in the fields of piped water and sanitation networks, the construction of reservoirs in the civil engineering field and the installation of electromechanical equipment. Supervision of works can also be left either to the Palestinian partner or to a local engineering consultancy depending on the available competencies or the technical level required. Recruitment of the various service providers is generally managed directly by the Palestinian partner according to the Palestinian public tender code, which requires a competitive tender process for prospective candidates and has procedures adapted to the type of works and the amounts involved.
Finally, regarding the execution of the works themselves, some important points should be raised:
*On account of the sometimes lengthy timeframes required to import materials from abroad, it is preferable to wait until procurement of materials has been completed on site, before starting the works;
*The French partner should not be thought of as a pure funder. Quality-control and adjustment stages, with which the French partner should be involved (directly or indirectly according to the chosen intervention method), should be defined before the start of the works;
*After completion of the works, it should be ensured that the verification drawings and other technical documents are handed over to the partner.
Studies: All works require detailed preliminary studies in order to set the budget and to draw up the plans and the technical specifications of the infrastructure. Palestinian communities (or the joint water and sanitation councils) generally have project documents, although it is much rarer for them to have strategic documents such as urban development plans. Proposals for infrastructure works are therefore based most of the time solely on direct observation on the ground. This lack of basic data (plans and characteristics of the networks) concerns both water and sanitation infrastructure (the latter,in general, being generally less well documented). In this case, it is useful to assist the partner when working on strategic studies and can be broken down in four chapters: data collection (survey of network characteristics, measurements, analysis of maintenance works), summary of the information and cartography,diagnosis of the infrastructure and improvement proposals.
With a view to harmonizing planning documents, PWA has designed standard models of strategic study reports which should be adhered to.
Studies should rely as much as possible on local engineering consultancies. However, as competencies vary from one structure to another, it is advisable to seek advice on the choice of service provider (by the PWA and/or the AFD). While the local consultants generally have good technical capabilities regarding problems relating to drinking water and sanitation networks, their experience is often more limited in terms of waste water treatment.
Particular care is recommended in conducting studies such as strategic plans or urban development plans.
Moving from data collection to detailed recommendations (and even as far as technical specifications and drawings) sometimes takes place too quickly, and the diagnosis phase, which requires the organization and analysis of basic data, tends to be neglected. It is therefore important that regular monitoring is ensured by a technical management committee whichif possible includes members of equivalent competence (French partner, Palestinian partner, PWA and other suitable stakeholders).
The management committee should ensure, in particular, that information is made available to the service provider, validate the main results, redirect the service provider if necessary and ensure that the studies are well monitored locally by council personnel in order to encourage their buy-in.
Technical training: Encouraging the exchange of experience and know-how between French technicians and engineers is one of the major assets of the decentralized cooperation programs. Beyond informal exchanges made during assignments, the organization of technical training sessions is often one of the requests made by the Palestinian partners.
*For example, the training of operational personnel while building a new infrastructure or new equipment is important.
*Training the personnel in the use of tools to conduct strategic studies, such as hydraulic modelling software, Geographic Information System (GIS) software could also be an interesting area of cooperation.
*The Palestinian partner can also request training sessions on topics such as treatment of wastewater, leak detection, set-up and use of performance indicators.
Training sessions can be organised in France or in Palestine, and given by technicians or engineers of the French partner or by specially appointed trainers. These options should be considered on a case-by-case basis, and take into account the following points:
*The choice of the trainer should depend on the goals of the training (topic and people to be trained) and should if possible favour use of the existing human resources of the French partner.
*Training in Palestine allows international trainers to understand the working context of the personnel to be trained and possibly offer practical exercises and real-life applications. When the training takes place in France (or in another country) ensure that the teaching and the tools used are in keeping with the reality on the ground in Palestine.
*Training sessions in Palestine increase the number of beneficiaries. If the organizational constraints of the training allow it, it is hence recommended to associate technicians/engineers belonging to other entities (PWA/municipal operators).
*PWA has a dedicated training department which should be contacted in order to explore possible synergies.
*Training in France should not be perceived as an opportunity for tourism, even though inter-cultural discovery remains important. The training programme, and also the practical questions of transport and accommodation, should therefore be made clear during the preparation phase.
*During the training courses, mutual understanding is fundamental; it is therefore necessary to appoint a suitable interpreter in France as well as in Palestine (command of technical vocabulary is essential).
Technical Assistance: Technical Assistance is one field in which the decentralized cooperation programs can bring real added value in relation to funders and NGOs. Facing similar problems, the French partners have real legitimacy in terms of helping their Palestinian partner implement improvements to the service supplied to populations. The precarious situation of the Palestinian public services is in fact often linked to poor management, from an organizational, commercial and financial standpoint. It follows that technical assistance involves not only a purely technical approach to the service, but also a multidisciplinary intervention relative to the various components.
Example of technical support in the management of a drinking water network:
*Supply of leak detection equipment;
*Training of operational personnel in use of the equipment;
*Technical Assistance in the setting up of a policy to reduce technical and commercial losses, through the organization of leak hunting campaigns, IT solutions to monitor consumption by sector, organizing a campaign of inspection and replacement of meters, etc. Back To Top